At the beginning of each academic year, my university brings in a keynote speaker as part of their faculty development offerings. Last year’s speaker presented some interesting research on the so-called “millennial generation,” which I found fascinating. This year’s speaker was Dr. Michele DiPietro, a noted researcher and Executive Director of the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Kennesaw State University. His 90 minute talk contained far too much information to summarize in this post, but I wanted to share just a few of the highlights from his informative and inspiring presentation. The information and research he presented was drawn from a new book which he co-authored, How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. According to Dr. DiPietro, this book is a “synthesis of 50 years of research” into how students actually learn, with its basic principles applying across cultures. As a nutshell description, here is a list of the 7 learning principles he discussed, quoted from his presentation handout.
- Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.
- How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.
- Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.
- To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.
- Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.
- Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.
- To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.
For each principle, Dr. DiPietro provided compelling descriptions of the research behind it, along with the implications for that research. For example, for principle No. 1 (prior knowledge can help or hinder learning), he showed how students can face learning difficulties if they have misconceptions about a certain subject, like physics, or math. However, as musicians we know this to be true as well. Personally, I wish no one had ever told me that the horn was a difficult instrument – imagine how differently students might approach the horn if they were told it was relatively simple to play? Another example I’ve encountered is with multiple tonguing – some students mistakenly believe they are double tonguing, when they actually aren’t – this creates some difficulties when trying to teach them how double tonguing really works. In some cases, though, prior knowledge can help students learn, provided that they are required to put that knowledge to use. The “moral” or implication for this particular principle was as follows. “Prior knowledge lies inert most of the time, and must be activated to be useful.” I found the rest of the presentation equally interesting, with plenty of applications for teaching music in both the classroom setting and private lessons.
Another principle which jumped out at me was No. 6, which dealt with how students respond to the classroom climate, or learning environment. On the surface this may not seem particularly applicable to private teachers, but stop for a moment to consider the kind of environment we create in our teaching studio. Is it an environment which encourages students to ask questions, and to help direct the course of their learning? Or is it one in which the students are afraid to make mistakes and/or question the teacher? What about the emotional climate – is it supportive and encouraging, or overly critical and judgmental? These issues can really define what students take away from their private lesson experiences at the college level and earlier.
In closing I’ll share another list from Dr. DiPietro’s presentation – what we owe our students. I think most teachers would recognize these concepts as very important to the learning process (particularly the last one), but it’s always good to review.
What we owe our students
Learning environments that
- Value and engage what students bring to the table
- Actively confront and challenge misconceptions
- Stay up-to-date with what students value
- Engage multiple goals
- Build self-efficacy
- Are responsive and helpful
- Emphasize both individual skills and their integration
- Explicitly teach for transfer
- Provide multiple opportunities for authentic practice (clear goals coupled with targeted feedback)
- Use the tools of the disciplines to engage and embrace complexity
- Are explicitly inclusive in methods and content
Learning environments that not only transmit knowledge, but
- Help students organize their knowledge in productive ways
- Actively monitor students’ construction of knowledge
Learning environments where educators
- Actively hunt down their expert blindspots
Learning environments that foster
- meta cognitive awareness
- a lifelong learning disposition
Your paragraph towards the end on point #6 makes you sound like a music therapist 😉
I’ve serendipitously had a number of conversations lately about music educators, making the point that part of their job in large institutions is weeding people out of the program so as to focus on the ones that are flourishing in it.
I had a back and forth with Greg Sandow about this a couple of years ago (specifically verbally abusive conductors) and he maintained that was more a feature of the old guard and that things are changing. Your picking out this idea of a positive psychological environment being important bolsters that notion.
But I wonder. One of the best brass players I’ve ever heard told me he’d been denied entry into being a music major twice before he was allowed in. A therapist can work with anyone willing to work, but educators have to think about whether to build hopes in students you feel won’t really be able to make it.
All of which is preamble to saying that that cold, make it on your own attitude of some teachers might be an easier way for them to deal with the weeding out process.
Also – as to point #3 – FWIW, Buddhist teaching holds that one’s motivation is the THE central element of a path as it leads and colors all the activities involved in pursuing it.