New Video: Louisiana All-State Etudes, Set 2

Happy New Year to all of my readers!

For my first post of 2017 I am sharing a video recorded back in December; two Kopprasch etudes that will be used for the upcoming Louisiana Music Educators Association All-State Auditions. Although these auditions are generally held in September and October, many districts in Louisiana use them as Honor Band audition material during the spring. I last recorded these etudes about 10 years ago, so it was time for a new (and hopefully improved) version. As with the previous set of etudes in this new series, I’m working on a set of preparatory exercises to accompany them. Look for those in a future post and video recording.

If you’re interested in the equipment I’m playing on this video, the horn is my new Yamaha 671, and the mouthpiece is a Laskey 75G in silver plate.

Mouthpiece Comparison Chart and

Related to my two previous posts about choosing a new horn (here) and mouthpiece (here), I recently learned of some new websites aimed at helping players compare a number of horn and mouthpiece brands and models.

First is Colin Dorman’s “Mouthpiece Comparison Chart,” an interactive resource which can be found on his website, Mr. Dorman is an active freelancer and teacher in the Louisville, Kentucky area, and holds degrees from the University of Alabama and the University of Louisville. As of this writing, the database contains 658 separate entries for mouthpieces, which can easily be searched and compared with one another across a variety of categories, including: Maker, Model, 1 or 2-piece, Thread Type,  Rim Inner Diameter, Rim Shape, Rim Width, Cup Depth, Cup Shape, and Bore Size.  A PDF version of the entire list can also be downloaded for free. In one of the comments related to the list, Mr. Dorman states that he sourced most of the information for each make and model from the manufacturers’ websites, so one can presume that the measurements are accurate. Comparing mouthpieces can be tricky; while there are some standards regarding how various dimensions are measured, the numbers themselves can be difficult to decipher. Mr. Dorman has helped remove some of that mystery by converting all the bore measurements to millimeters, so that differences can be seen at a glance. One word of caution I would offer when comparing inner diameter (ID) measurements was related to me by a well-known maker of custom mouthpieces. Because of differences in where  ID is actually measured by different makers, the same measurement on one brand might not be the same on another. For example, an ID of 17.5mm on one brand might not actually be the same size as 17.5mm on another brand.

Virtually every major brand is represented here, and horn players should be grateful to Mr. Dorman for the amount of time and effort it must have taken to create such a detailed database. He also provides a very handy guide to choosing a new mouthpiece, as well as a great explanation of what the various parts of a mouthpiece do and how they are measured. I would also add that the rest of Mr. Dorman’s website contains some other useful resources, including a blog, technical and fundamental exercises, recordings of the Kentucky All-State Etudes, and more. Be sure to check it out!

The next resource is called Horn Reviews: The Horn Research Helper. This unassuming site actually contains quite a bit of information, including fairly extensive reviews of models by Alexander, Conn, Engelbert Schmid, Hans Hoyer, Holton, Jupiter, Paxman, and Yamaha. Like mega-retailers such as Amazon, Horn Reviews allows visitors to submit their own reviews and see what others have written about a particular make/model of instrument. Each model of horn is also rated on a five-point scale for Tone Quality, Playability, Construction, and Value for Money. After reading several of the reviews, I can say that they are for the most part well-informed, and give a good overview of the pros and cons for each type of horn (preferences of individual players and quirks of specific instruments notwithstanding). However, there are a few observations I would make about this site and others like them. They aren’t red flags, per se, just things that visitors should be aware of before putting too much stock in the reviews and other information found here.

  • I could not find any information on who wrote the reviews. I contacted the website creators using the online form, and am awaiting more information. The first rule of all online information is that you should be able to easily verify the author(s) and their qualifications.
  • There is no rubric given for how the five-point rating system works. The idea has some merit, and the graphics for each model look pretty slick, but for the ratings to provide anything other than personal opinion they really ought to have a detailed rubric for each category.
  • A statement on the website mentions an “Affiliate Program,” with the following information:

The owner of this site is an affiliate of e-commerce websites that sell French horns and related products. If you are interested in promoting your business on via an affiliate relationship, please contact us. Recommendations, ratings and reviews are not influenced by participation in our affiliate agreements.

There isn’t anything unusual about websites like this one earning ad revenue, but the vagueness of the statement itself (What e-commerce websites?, How can you promote your business on struck me as a little odd. Perhaps I’m being overly suspicious, but combined with the anonymity and unverifiable credentials of the authors, this was a sticking point for me. Despite these issues, Horn Reviews is worth more than just a casual visit. Perhaps the site will be developed more in the future, and will become even more useful.

Equipment Update Part 2: Mouthpieces


From left to right: Houghton H1, Balu/Maelstrom Le Mezzo Meow, Houser GS12

[This is a continually evolving post, which has been edited at least three times. The Mouthpiece Wheel of Doom continues to turn!] In part two of this equipment update (see Part 1 here), I’ll share some information about trying different mouthpieces on a new horn. In Part 1, I discussed my switch to a Yamaha 671 double from an Engelbert Schmid double. For many years I’ve used a Houser GS12 mouthpiece in silver plate with a Houser E rim in H Kote. For more information on what all of that means, you can check out the Houser website, but in  short it is a very middle of the road mouthpiece, with a slightly smaller-than-average size cup and bore. The rim has a 17.5mm inner diameter, with a fairly rounded profile (similar to a Laskey rim). It worked very well on the Schmid, and I have been quite happy with it overall. However, after a month or so with the Yamaha, I decided it was time to try out some different mouthpieces to see how they worked with the new horn. Though not an extreme mouthpiece collector (I own less than a hundred) my stable of mouthpieces is representative of many of the most common brands today. One of the main reasons for maintaining a robust collection is so that both I and my students can readily try out different rim and cup combinations. Plus, sometimes it’s just fun to try out a new mouthpiece for a while to see what happens! I usually end up coming right back to where I started, but in some cases a switch turns out to be the right move.

What am I looking for in a mouthpiece? Here’s my short list:

  • A comfortable rim – I tend to prefer rounded rims, with not too much “bite” on the inside edge
  • 17.5 mm Inner Diameter (Not interested in trying a wider ID at this point)
  • Enough room in the cup to allow my embouchure to function properly, but not so big that endurance and range become difficult
  • A clear, distinct front to articulations
  • Compatible with my personal sound concept and style of playing

Of course I realize that a mouthpiece alone will not solve all of one’s playing issues. There are very few, if any, magic bullets, but sometimes it’s worth trying new equipment, even if you end up right back where you started. As of this update I have narrowed my choices down from four options, all of which I’ve played on previously with my Schmid: My current Houser Mouthpiece (described above); a Balumusik/Malestrom Le Mezzo Meow cup in stainless steel with my Houser E Rim, a Laskey 75G in Silver Plate, and a Houghton Horns/Houser H1 one-piece stainless with a 17.5mm rim. All four mouthpieces are  high quality models, and can be easily found online. The Balu mouthpiece was very easy to play on, with great intonation and crisp, distinct articulations. However, there was just a little too much edge or sizzle in the sound for my taste. More promising was the Houghton H1, which had the same nice articulations and other characteristics as the Balu, but with a rounder, mellower sound overall, similar to the Houser.  One drawback to the Houghton that wasn’t immediately noticeable at first but became more apparent after a week or so was the stickier feel of the polished stainless steel rim. Perhaps I’ve just gotten very attached to my H-Kote rim, but for whatever reason the Houghton didn’t settle in and start to feel good. The Houghton rim also has a more defined inner edge, which got great articulations, but wasn’t helpful for endurance. After two weeks on the Houghton, I decided to try something else. Right now I am liking the Laskey 75G the best in terms of sound, response, and overall feel on the Yamaha. It might also be worth mentioning that the Laskey worked very well on my previous Yamaha, a 667V. Perhaps after some time I will give the Houghton, Balu, or Houser another try, but for right now the Laskey seems to be the best option.

Many horn players shy away from experimenting with equipment, and prefer to stay on the same trusted horns and/or mouthpieces they’ve been using for years. I understand and respect this approach, but if you’re curious about other equipment you shouldn’t feel stuck. Now more than ever there are so many great options out there that it really can be worth trying out some different gear from time to time. Most mouthpiece makers will allow you to order several models on trial, so you need not spend big bucks building a mouthpiece collection unless you want to.


Equipment Update Part 1: A New Horn


Yamaha 671 Double Horn, with Custom Work by Houghton Horns

In an earlier post, I briefly mentioned an upcoming review about a new horn. After several weeks of playing it, I have some thoughts on my new double horn, a Yamaha YHR 671. Earlier this year at IHS 48  I did some preliminary testing on both the 671 and the higher end 871 Custom, with the following reaction.

I spent a few minutes in the exhibit rooms this afternoon, and tried out a few of Yamaha’s new horns, the 671 and 871. My initial impressions were quite good. Both horns are very well balanced and even across the range. I have to say though that based on the two horns I tried, my preference was for the less expensive 671. Of course, more thorough playing on both models would be necessary to come to any firm conclusions. If you have the opportunity, try out both horns for yourself.

Stepping back a little, here is a short list of reasons why I was even looking for a new horn in the first place.

  • I’ve played an Engelbert Schmid ES1 double horn for the last five years, and overall was very pleased with it. Schmid’s horns are incredibly light, well balanced, and built to the highest mechanical and artistic standards. I was comfortable performing on it as a soloist, and in orchestra and chamber music. But…
  • I was not 100% satisfied with my sound, especially in my university’s recital hall, where I do the majority of my solo and chamber music performances, and where I plan to record my second solo CD. Both my colleagues and I noticed a tendency for the sound to “break up” at higher dynamics. I’m sure this is due to more than just the lightness of the horn, and I definitely don’t want to take anything away from Schmid’s very fine horns. However, after trying various mouthpiece and bell options (over the course of a few years) without obtaining the desired result, I thought it might be worth looking at some different instruments.
  • In addition to looking for a slightly different sound, I was also curious about Yamaha’s new models. While I’ve played a Schmid for the last five years, I played Yamahas for the previous fourteen years before that. In many ways, returning to a Yamaha horn felt like coming home.

Ok, now for a bit more about the new horn. First, it isn’t a stock Yamaha 671. Houghton Horns, who sold me the instrument, did some custom work on it, including installing a Schmid bell ring and removing the lacquer. Out of the box the horn played great! As mentioned above, returning to a Yamaha even after so many years I felt like all the notes were in the right places. With the Schmid I always seemed to be fighting something, especially in the high range. Like the YHR 667V I played all through graduate school, this one has a great high B-flat. In addition, the horn has more “core” to the sound, and I’m able to keep that core at loud dynamics. After rehearsals with the faculty brass trio, my colleagues agreed that the sound was preferable to the Schmid. As mentioned earlier, Schmid horns are fantastic instruments, but at this point in my career the right choice for me was the Yamaha. However, in the interest of fairness and full disclosure, there are some noticeable differences with the Yamaha.

First, the horn is a little heavier than the Schmid, which I had to adjust to. For the first several days I needed to take frequent breaks while playing to rest my left arm. You wouldn’t think that a difference of a few ounces would matter, but it does. Second, and most significantly, in my opinion is the valves. I suppose I’d gotten spoiled by Schmid valves, which are more or less perfect, but the Yamaha valves are definitely slower. On top of that, they became so sluggish after a few days (despite repeated oiling) that I ended up sending the horn back to Houghton Horns to have them check it out. Houghton provided excellent service at no charge, and got the valves back in working order. I’m not exactly sure what was wrong, but Dennis (Houghton) said that spinning the valves in oil got them going again. He also sent back a bottle of Hetman piston valve oil to use for a while. As of this writing I haven’t had any major issues with the valves. The third and final difference – though not a drawback – is that both sides of the horn settle at a slightly lower pitch than the Schmid. I had to be very mindful to keep the pitch low enough on the Schmid, but it isn’t quite as much of a struggle with the Yamaha.

In summary, though it isn’t a perfect horn (none are), the Yamaha 671 is a very well made instrument, and I’m really enjoying playing on it. I’ll post some audio and video recordings of it in action very soon.

Stay tuned for part two of this series: testing mouthpieces on the new horn.

Friday Review: Rescued! Forgotten Works for the 19th Century Horn

rescuedFor today’s review we have a new recording by John Ericson, Rescued! Forgotten Works for the 19th Century Horn. Ericson is Associate Professor of Horn at Arizona State University, and is a recognized expert on horn history and the 19th-century horn in particular. I’ve been looking forward to this recording for quite some time, and have avidly followed Ericson’s series of articles related to this project on Horn Matters. The entire series is well worth reading, but to summarize, Rescued! is the culmination of Ericson’s research into the repertoire and technique of the 19th-century single F horn, which is often overlooked by modern horn players. The written description of the CD is as follows:

Rescued! celebrates the forgotten works of a group of 19th-century hornists and composers. The music included in this recording was composed between roughly 1860 and 1910 and are quality works aimed primarily at low horn players of the late 19th century who still used single F horns. The works included in this recording are:

  • Nocturno, Op. 73 – B. Ed. Müller
  • Sonate, Op. 347 – Fritz Spindler
  • Melancholie, Op. 68 – B. Ed. Müller
  • Am Abend, Op. 71 – B. Ed. Müller
  • Gondellied, Op. 15 – Karl Matys
  • Lied ohne Worte, Op. 2 – Oscar Franz
  • Serenade, Op. 20 – Louis Bödecker
  • Lied ohne Worte – Josef Richter
  • Resignation, Op. 16 – Charles Eisner
  • Wiegenlied, Op. 69, No. 1 – B. Ed. Müller
  • Sonata, Op. 7 – Hermann Eichborn

Most of the compositions on this recording will be new or at the least unfamiliar to a majority of horn players. And while the works presented here may not have been written by the “A-list” composers of the time, they are still high quality and worthy of study. The scores are all available on IMSLP for free, and I think that Ericson’s fine recording will help revive an interest in them. Any would be perfect additions to a recital.

I’ve heard Ericson perform numerous times, and both he and pianist Yi-Wan Liao are in top form on this recording. The technical difficulties involved in performing on the single F horn are daunting: mouthpieces, crooks, accuracy, intonation, etc. Yet Ericson plays with exceptional musicality, not to mention spot-on accuracy and intonation throughout the entire disc. As one might expect, the sound of the single F horn is reminiscent of the natural horn – warm and velvety in softer dynamics, with a bit of sizzle at forte volume. The piano sound is also quite warm, accentuating (without dominating) the horn sound. Most of the works emphasize the lyrical capabilities of the instrument, although the Eichborn Sonata and a few others contain some nice technical passages as well. Listening to this disc, one might assume that playing a 19th-century single F horn is an easy task – if you’ve ever tried it you know that isn’t the case! “Wolf” notes are more frequent and difficult to control than on the modern double horn, and achieving any level of accuracy requires great skill and an exceptional ear. Bravo to Ericson and Liao for releasing this fine disc!

Friday Review: Horn Playing from the Inside Out, 3rd Edition, by Eli Epstein

epstein_thirdedIn today’s review we’ll look at another great pedagogical text, Horn Playing from the Inside Out, by Eli Epstein, now in a revised 3rd edition. I first reviewed this book back in 2012, saying:

I really can’t find any faults with this book, and highly recommend it to anyone interested in improving not just their horn playing, but overall musicianship and well being. Horn Playing from the Inside Out approaches even the most challenging techniques from a very matter-of-fact, can-do perspective, which is infectious! With this book, Mr. Epstein has gone a long way towards taking the mystery out of horn technique.

At the time I was preparing for a solo recital, a recording session, and an orchestral audition, and found Epstein’s book to be incredibly helpful in all three endeavors.  The chapters on vowels and managing performance anxiety were particularly useful for me. Since 2012, Mr. Epstein has published two more editions of his book, incorporating the latest scientific and pedagogical information available. If you don’t own a copy of the first or second edition, the third edition is a must, and even if you already own the book it’s worth taking a look at this new edition. Here’s a brief look at content created or modified since the first edition.

  • Expanded and more detailed sections on breathing, vowels, articulation, and dynamics, informed by the latest real-time MRI imagery. Eli Epstein and Dr. Peter Iltis have created a YouTube channel to introduce the world to this exciting new realm of research. Explanations in the book are accompanied by detailed MRI images, which help us to visualize difficult concepts.
  • New chapter on Finger-Breathing, which also has an accompanying YouTube video.
  • Revised commentary and tips on several of the most-requested orchestral excerpts, which have been recorded by the author and are available on iTunes.
  • An appendix on How to Choose a Horn: This is one of the most comprehensive and practical guides to choosing a new instrument that I have seen.

There are numerous other tweaks and updates in this new edition, but the above list hits on most of the major ones. While the first edition was (and is) fantastic as a standalone text, the addition of videos and recordings as companions to the third edition make it even more valuable for horn teachers and students. Part pedagogical treatise, part practical handbook, Horn Playing from the Inside Out should be in every horn player’s library.

Friday Review: Low Range for the Horn Player, by Douglas Hill

hill-low-rangeReturning to my review series, which has been on hiatus for several months, we have a new edition of a publication by Douglas Hill, Low Range for the Horn Player. Originally published by Really Good Music, this new engraving has been made available through the efforts of Daren Robbins, Editor of the International Horn Society’s Online Music Sales program.

If you are unfamiliar with this book, it is part of a series of publications by Hill covering several technical issues in horn playing. Other titles in the series include High Range for the Horn Player and From Vibrato to Trills to Tremolos…for the Horn Player.  While in graduate school at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, I had the opportunity to preview draft versions of the high range and trill books, and the low range book was published a few years after I left. Being very familiar with Hill’s teaching and previous publications, I was excited to review this book, which provides numerous tips and exercises for developing one’s low register. Hill’s explanations are practical and to the point, including a Detailed Checklist as a well as a Quick-fix Checklist for low playing. Many of the exercises were familiar to me, but there were also quite a few new ones. In addition to the traditional methods of developing the low range – long tones, pivot/shift, power exercises – many novel approaches are presented, including the use of flutter tonguing as well as multiphonics. Hill is clearly a master pedagogue of the instrument, and brings to bear forty-plus years of teaching experience in his approach to the low range. If one of the exercises doesn’t work for you or your students, there are sure to be several that do. Perhaps the next step for this publication, and others of its type, is to produce short video demonstrations of the exercises and concepts. Having an aural example to refer to or play along with would be very useful I think.
In summary, Low Range for the Horn Player should be required reading for all serious students of the horn. While it may not earn the same glory as the high range, the low tessitura is an equally important and rewarding area of performance and pedagogy.

Faculty Recital Recordings and Upcoming Posts

October was a very busy month, with a performance or other professional obligation every weekend. November will be a little lighter, which should allow me to post more regularly…at least until December. In early October Richard Seiler and I presented a recital entitled Old Wine in New Bottles: Transcriptions for Horn and Piano. The performance went very well, and I’m pleased to share videos of a few works from the program. All but one  were my own arrangements, which I am planning to record for a forthcoming recording project. More on that later.

First up is my version of Weber’s Romance. For program notes please refer to the link above, but in short the piece  – which is attributed to Weber and often performed by trombone players – works quite nicely on horn. The horn part is not terribly difficult, but does tend to emphasize the low range. It is published and available through Cimarron Music Press.

Next is my take on Ravel’s Vocalise-Etude en Forme de Habanera, originally for voice, but transcribed for numerous other instruments. Not yet published, but coming soon!

The last excerpt from our program is Robert Schumann’s Fantasiestücke, Op. 73, in a wonderful arrangement by Kazimierz Machala. It’s a great piece, but not as difficult as the Adagio and Allegro, Op. 70. I’ve performed the Fantasiestücke multiple times over the years, and it is always rewarding to play.

One item worth noting in the videos is that I am standing by the keyboard, with my bell facing the audience. I have seen more and more horn players standing this way for solo recitals, so I decided to give it a try for this program. My usual position is turned about 180 degrees, in the bend of the piano. These two setups have their advantages and disadvantages, and it is worth trying both as well as other variations. Much depends on the size and acoustics of the hall, but in general I liked being closer to the keyboard for ensemble reasons as well as getting more clarity of sound.

Looking ahead to future posts for this blog, I have a sizable backlog of items for review, including recordings, books, and a new horn!

Things I Learned from my High School Band Director

img_20161004_142042112_hdrLast week I learned of the death of my high school band director. He had been in ill health, but I was unaware of how serious his condition had become. I had the opportunity to speak with him a few summers ago, and we spent a couple of hours reminiscing, gossiping about local high school music programs, and talking about the future. It was the last time I would speak to him in person, and I am grateful that we had the opportunity. Learning of his death brought with it not only sadness, but also many wonderful memories of experiences in his band. Though not always the friendliest of people, he was a dedicated teacher and mentor to thousands of students who came through his program. As is the case with many high school students, my band director came to be one of the most influential people in my life. There have been many eloquent and poignant tributes to him shared on social media, and I would like to share a few thoughts here. Of the many, many things I learned in high school band, here are my favorites. Rest in Peace, Mr. Carswell.

  1. The Music of Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, and Richard Wagner: To say that my band director was “old school” is a bit of an understatement. He had an abiding love for the great orchestral composers of the 19th century, and shared that love with his students through recordings, videos, and transcriptions of their works. I have vivid memories of attempting to read the first movement of Mahler’s Third Symphony during my freshman year of high school. After a grueling rehearsal, Mr. Carswell loaned me a recording of the piece with the NY Philharmonic and Bernstein conducting. After listening to it at home, I remember thinking, Oh…that’s how it’s supposed to go!” My first encounters with Mahler’s symphonies, Wagner’s operas and Strauss’s tone poems happened in his rehearsals, and continue to have an influence on me.
  2. Chamber Music: Chamber music has long played an important role in my musical life, with my first experiences happening as a member of my high school’s brass quintet. Under Mr. Carswell’s coaching, we prepared ceremonial music for Memorial Day, various school functions, and even the occasional gig around town. While our performances may not have been of the highest caliber, we had a great time rehearsing and laughing together. Without a doubt it was these early positive experiences in chamber music that helped make it an important component of my professional life.
  3. The Band Hall is a Safe Place: High school can be a difficult time, and I still remember the awkwardness of trying to find my “place” amidst the teenage noise and angst. My freshman year was particularly tough – no surprise there – and looking back on things I realize that my path could have easily gone in a less positive direction, had it not been for the influence of Mr. Carswell and the friends I made while in band. After casting about for some kind of identity during the first several weeks of the school year, I discovered that the band hall was a safe place to hang out and converse before, between, and after classes. I quickly made friends with the other students who hung out there, and we discussed all manner of things, including music, politics, sports, movies, and romance. Mr. Carswell was always there, and made sure to put people back in their place if the conversations ever got out of hand. I found lifelong friends among those band students, and I am grateful that we were allowed to congregate there.
  4. History, Tradition, and Legacy: As mentioned above, Mr. Carswell imparted his love of tradition and history to his students, especially the legacy of great band programs in our part of the state. Our school had inherited much of the music that belonged to the Lenoir High School Band, and we spent many hours going through the old scores and sets of parts that had been bequeathed to us. Shown above is a well-used miniature score to Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony that was passed along to me by Mr. Carswell, although I should probably return it to my old high school at some point…
  5. You can do this for a living? One of the pivotal moments in my life came during my freshman year, shortly after a band rehearsal. Mr. Carswell stopped me in the hall and, almost in passing, said something to the effect of “you know, you could do this for a living.”  I suppose I must have looked quite confused, because he followed up by saying that he thought I had what it took to be a professional musician. As a high school freshman, I had given very little thought to my college plans, not to mention a career. I wasn’t completely sold on the idea, but his kind words certainly planted a seed which came to shape my college and career goals. I don’t know that I ever explicitly thanked him for showing confidence in my abilities, but I hope he knew just how much that little conversation (and many others like it) meant to my fellow students and me.

Horn DIY: Replace a Water Key Spring


Water Key Spring, Sold by Votaw Tool

While practicing this summer, I heard a soft “pa-ting” from my horn, and knew pretty much right away what it was; the spring on one of my horn’s two water keys had broken. Though not a common occurrence, the metal on these springs can and will wear out from time to time, requiring a replacement. Rather than take the horn to a shop, I decided to attempt the repair myself. It is not difficult, and only requires a few tools. Here’s what you will need if you want to try it yourself.

  • Wire cutters, for trimming the ends of the spring
  • Screwdriver
  • Replacement spring(s): You can order these from a variety of places, including Votaw Tool and Allied Supply.  Not knowing exactly what to use, I bought an assortment of springs for a few dollars total. The first spring I tried, listed as a “Trumpet Water Key Spring,” fit the horn just fine, but didn’t have quite enough tension to function properly.  The next one I tried, listed simply as a “Waterkey Spring,” also fit and had a similar tension as the other water key already on my horn.
  • Water Key Tension Tool/Installer:  This little device is meant to hold tension on the spring as you install it, and seemed like a very handy item to have. However, I wasn’t able to use it for this particular job because it simply wouldn’t fit in the space without hitting the tubing. Should you wish to make one of these yourself, you can find detailed instructions in Glen Perry’s The Essential Guide to Horn Maintenance.

Here’s a short video showing the process.